Around 1740, Leonard Euler discovered a formula that connected functions of complex arguments to trigonometric functions, effectively forming a link between analytic functions and geometric functions which eventually extended to topology, differential equations, and mathematical physics. All of this began with one simple formula, lauded by *Richard Feynman* as “the most remarkable formula in mathematics,” and it is

$$e^{ix}=\cos(x)+i\sin(x), \text{ with } x\in\mathbb{R}. $$

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